From The New York Times:

A small but growing number of companies like Wonder Workshop and KinderLab Robotics are seeking to teach computer programming to children through robotics. One of the founders of KinderLab Robotics, Marina Umaschi Bers, conducted research at Tufts University showing that children as young as 5 could learn to code if given tools appropriate for their age. The KinderLab robot is modular and relies on wooden blocks that its young programmers arrange in sequence. These patterns that the programmers have arranged are transformed into actions, like dancing, moving, and flashing a light. Other robots, like the Wonder Workshop products, are programmed using tablets and smartphone applications.